Subchronic and reproductive toxicity of whole dried Hoodia parviflora aerial parts in the rat.
Hoodia parviflora is being developed commercially for use in weight loss food and dietary supplement products. As part of the safety assessment process for H. parviflora, a freeze dried powder preparation was tested in a 90-day oral toxicity study with reproductive/recovery component in rats. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were administered H. parviflora dried powder at doses of 0, 100, 250, and 350 mg/kg body weight/day by gavage for an 11-week pre-mating period and a 14-day co-habitation period, and for females, through lactation day 4. An additional 5 rats/sex/group received 0 or 350 mg/kg bw/day for 90 days and were sacrificed 28 days after cessation of treatment. Statistically significant, non-adverse reductions in body weight, body weight gain, food consumption and food efficiency were observed at 250 and 350 mg/kg/day in females. Food consumption was reduced in high-dose males. There were no adverse effects on hematological, blood biochemical, coagulation or urinalysis parameters or on the results of the functional observational battery and histopathological examinations. No evidence of any effect was noted on reproductive or developmental parameters. The NOAEL for dried H. parviflora powder was 350 mg/kg bw/day, the highest permissible dose tested, for both male and female rats.